Cooling Predictions from the 1970's

For those who would deny that the climate is warming one common question they will ask is "Why did they predict climate cooling in the '70s?".  When asked who is the "they" they are refering to the usual response is "All climate scientists."  It turns out that is just not true.  1970s ice age predictions were predominantly media based. The majority of peer reviewed research at the time predicted warming due to increasing CO2.  For a more detailed look at the state of climate science in the 1970's see [here] for a basic overview and [here] for a more indepth overview.  The following two charts and the references come from those overviews provided by Skeptical Science.
Figure 1: Number of papers classified as predicting global cooling (blue) or warming (red). In no year were there more cooling papers than warming papers (Peterson 2008).
The fact is that around 1970 there were 6 times as many scientists predicting a warming rather than a cooling planet. Today, with 30+years more data to analyse, we've reached a clear scientific consensus: 97% of working climate scientists agree with the view that human beings are causing global warming.

Climate Scientists of the 1970's

The following is a list of notable climate scientists who were active during the 1970's.  They were at various stages of their careers but each published during the '70s.  In each case their work indicated a warming trend for the earth's climate.  This list is by no means complete.  All of these men worked in collaboration with others.  If you follow the links you will find references to many more climate scientists from the '70s.

Bert Rickard Johannes Bolin (Swedish pronunciation: [bæʈː bʊliːn]; 15 March 1925 – 30 December 2007)[1] was a Swedish meteorologist who served as the first chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), from 1988 to 1997. He was professor of meteorology at Stockholm University from 1961 until his retirement in 1990.  

Bolin was Professor of Meteorology at Stockholm University 1961-1990, and involved in international climate research cooperation from the 1960s. Bolin was involved in organising use of the new satellite tools for climate research, which led to the formation of the ICSU Committee on Atmospheric Sciences (CAS) in 1964, with Bolin becoming its first Chairman. CAS started the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP) in 1967, which Bolin also chaired; GARP became the World Climate Research Programme in 1980.[3]

In the mid-1980s, a 500-page report (Brundtland Report) which Bolin was involved with contributed to the setting up of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).[4] Under his chairmanship (from 1988 to 1997), the IPCC produced its First Assessment Report (1990) and Second Assessment Report (1995), contributing to the IPCC sharing the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with former US Vice President Al Gore.[1] Bolin was asked to accept the Prize on behalf of the IPCC, but was too ill to attend.[4] Bolin is credited with bringing together a diverse range of views among the panel's 3,500 scientists into something resembling a consensus.[5] The first report led to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the second to the Kyoto Protocol.[1]

Jule Gregory Charney (January 1, 1917 – June 16, 1981) was an American meteorologist who played an important role in developing weather prediction. He developed a set of equations (The Quasi-Geostrophic Vorticity Equation) for calculating the large-scale motions of planetary-scale waves. He gave the first convincing physical explanation for the development of mid-latitude cyclones known as the Baroclinic Instability theory. He is considered the father of modern dynamical meteorology.

Charney studied physics at UCLA where he completed his masters in 1940 and Ph.D. in 1946.

In the 1950s, he was involved in early research on numerical weather prediction together with John von Neumann at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) at Princeton University. He and von Neumann brought over from England a recent Ph.D. in meteorological calculations, Bruce Gilchrist, to work on this task using the institute's computer, the IAS machine.[1] Their collective work paved the way for the founding of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laborator

Joseph Smagorinsky (29 January 1924 - 21 September 2005) was an American meteorologist and the first director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.  Following his apprenticeship and work with von Neumann and Charney, in 1953, at age 29, Smagorinsky accepted a position at the U.S. Weather Bureau and was among the pioneers of the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. In 1955, at von Neumann's instigation, the U.S. Weather Bureau created a General Circulation Research Section under Smagorinsky's direction. Smagorinsky felt that his charge was to continue with the final step of the von Neumann/Charney computer modeling program: a three-dimensional, global, primitive-equation general circulation model of the atmosphere. The General Circulation Research Section was initially located in Suitland, Maryland, near the Weather Bureau's JNWP unit. The section moved to Washington, D.C. and was renamed the General Circulation Research Laboratory in 1959 and then renamed again as the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in 1963. The lab moved to its current home at Princeton University in 1968. Smagorinsky continued to direct the lab until his retirement in January, 1983.

Syukuro "Suki" Manabe (真 鍋 淑郎 Manabe Shukurō?, born on September 21, 1931 in Ehime) is a Japanese meteorologist and climatologist who pioneered the use of computers to simulate global climate change and natural climate variations.  

Working at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, first in Washington, DC and later in Princeton, New Jersey, Manabe worked with director Joseph Smagorinsky to develop three dimensional models of the atmosphere. In 1967 he and Richard Wetherald demonstrated that increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations would increase the altitude at which the earth radiated heat to space. In 1969 Manabe and Kirk Bryan published the first simulations of the climate of a planet with coupled ocean and atmosphere models, establishing the role of oceanic heat transport in determining global climate. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Manabe's research group published seminal papers using these models to explore the sensitivity of Earth's climate to changing greenhouse gas concentrations. These papers formed a major part of the first global assessments of climate change published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Other important work done by Manabe included the suggestion that climate might have more than one stable state (Manabe and Stouffer, 1988) and the demonstration that switches between such states could be induced in a relatively realistic model by melting ice caps (Manabe et al., 1995).

Yale Mintz: In the late 1950s, Yale Mintz of the UCLA Dept. of Meteorology also began to design numerical general circulation experiments.[5] Like Smagorinsky, Mintz recruited a Japanese meteorologist, Akio Arakawa, to help him build general circulation models. Arakawa, known for his mathematical wizardry, was particularly interested in building robust schemes for the parameterization of cumulus convection. Mintz and Arakawa constructed a series of increasingly sophisticated AGCMs beginning in 1961. IBM's Large Scale Scientific Computation Department in San Jose, California, provided important computational assistance and wrote the manual describing the model.

Of all the general circulation modeling groups in the world, the UCLA laboratory probably had the greatest influence on other modeling groups, especially in the 1960s and 1970s

Akio Arakawa developed  Arakawa's Computation Device   Climate science required the invention and mastery of difficult techniques. These had pitfalls, which could lead to controversy. An example of the ingenious technical work and hard-fought debates underlying the main story is Akio Arakawa's invention of a mathematical method that solved a vexing instability in big computer models.

Edward Norton Lorenz (May 23, 1917 – April 16, 2008)[1] was an American mathematician and meteorologist, and a pioneer of chaos theory.[2] He discovered the strange attractor notion and coined the term butterfly effect.  During the 1950s, Lorenz became skeptical of the appropriateness of the linear statistical models in meteorology, as most atmospheric phenomena involved in weather forecasting are non-linear.[2] His work on the topic culminated in the publication of his 1963 paper Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow in Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, and with it, the foundation of chaos theory.[2][4] His description of the butterfly effect followed in 1969,[2][5][6]. He was awarded the Kyoto Prize for basic sciences, in the field of earth and planetary sciences, in 1991,[7] the Buys Ballot Award in 2004, and the Tomassoni Award in 2008.[citation needed] In his later years, he lived in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was an avid outdoorsman, who enjoyed hiking, climbing, and cross-country skiing. He kept up with these pursuits until very late in his life, and managed to continue most of his regular activities until only a few weeks before his death. According to his daughter, Cheryl Lorenz, Lorenz had "finished a paper a week ago with a colleague."[8]  

Lorenz built a mathematical model of the way air moves around in the atmosphere. As Lorenz studied weather patterns he began to realize that they did not always change as predicted. Minute variations in the initial values of variables in his twelve-variable computer weather model (c. 1960) would result in grossly divergent weather patterns.[2] This sensitive dependence on initial conditions came to be known as the butterfly effect (it also meant that weather predictions from more than about a week out are generally fairly inaccurate).[10]

Lorenz went on to explore the underlying mathematics and published his conclusions in a seminal work titled Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow, in which he described a relatively simple system of equations that resulted in a very complicated dynamical object now known as the Lorenz attractor.[4]

Julian Adem expanded the domain of numerical weather prediction schemes in order to derive global climate models.  The low-resolution thermodynamic model first described by Adem in 1965 is an interesting type of climate model, since it lies part-way towards the apex of the climate modelling pyramid although the methodology is simpeler in nature than that of an atmospheric GCM.  Similar in basic composition to an EBM, Adem's model includes, ina highly parameterized way, many dynamic, radiative and surfvace features and feedback effects, giving it a higher position on the modelling pyramid.

James E. Hansen (born March 29, 1941) heads the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City, a part of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. He has held this position since 1981. He is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University.

After graduate school, Hansen continued his work with radiative transfer models, attempting to understand the Venusian atmosphere. Later he applied and refined these models to understand the Earth's atmosphere, in particular, the effects that aerosols and trace gases have on Earth's climate. Hansen's development and use of global climate models has contributed to the further understanding of the Earth's climate.

Hansen is best known for his research in the field of climatology, his testimony on climate change to congressional committees in 1988 that helped raise broad awareness of global warming, and his advocacy of action to limit the impacts of climate change.

Wallace Smith Broecker (born November 29, 1931 - Chicago[1]) is the Newberry Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University and a scientist at Columbia's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. He developed the idea of a global "conveyor belt" linking the circulation of the global ocean and made major contributions to the science of the carbon cycle and the use of chemical tracers and isotope dating in oceanography.  In 1975, Broecker inadvertently coined the phrase global warming when he published a paper titled: “Climate Change: Are we on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?”[9] He has recently co-written an account of climate science with the science journalist, Robert Kunzig. This includes a discussion of the work of Broecker's Columbia colleague Klaus Lackner in capturing CO2 from the atmosphere - which Broecker believes must play a vital role in reducing emissions and countering global warming. Broecker has been described in the New York Times as a geoengineering pioneer.[10]

Kirk Bryan (born 1929) is an American oceanographer who is considered to be the founder of numerical ocean modeling. Starting in the 1960s at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, then located in Washington, D.C., Bryan worked with a series of colleagues to develop numerical schemes for solving the equations of motion describing flow on a sphere. His work on these schemes led to the so-called "Bryan-Cox code" with which many early simulations were made, and which led to the Modular Ocean Model currently used by many numerical oceanographers and climate scientists.

In addition to his important contributions in developing numerical codes, Bryan was also involved in early efforts to apply them to understanding the global climate system. In 1967, he published, with Michael Cox, the first model of the 3-dimensional circulation of the ocean, forced by both winds and thermodynamic forcing. In 1969, a paper with Syukoro Manabe was the first to present integrations of a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model, demonstrating the importance of ocean heat transport to the climate. This work was recently named one of the top ten breakthroughs in the history of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Bryan's 1971 paper with the noted dynamicist Adrian Gill demonstrated the important role played by bottom topography in setting the structure of the global ocean circulation, and played a major role in suggesting links between changes in continental topography and climate, continuing a long-term interest in the role of oceanic heat transport in determining global climate.

Warren M. Washington is an atmospheric scientist whose research focuses on the development of computer models that describe and predict the Earth's climate. He is the director of the Climate and Global Dynamics Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), in Boulder, Colorado. He has advised the U.S. Congress and several U.S. presidents on climate-system modeling, serving on the President's National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere from 1978 to 1984.

Cesare Emiliani
(1922-1995), an Italian paleoceanographer who used Urey's oxygen isotope to discover that the temperature of the ocean and the ice masses on Earth changed through time in cycles and showed that these cycles could be recognized and correlated throughout the Atlantic. He is widely regarded as the father of paleoceanography.  For more on Emiliani see here.

Gilbert N. Plass (1921-2004) was a Canadian-born physicist who made important early contributions to the carbon dioxidetheory of climate change. He graduated from Harvard University in 1941, received a Ph.D in physics from Princeton University in 1947, and eventually became a professor at Texas A&M University. Between 1953 and 1959, Plass developed an early computer model of infrared radiative transfer and published a number of articles on carbon dioxide and climate. Plass used new detailed measurements of the infrared absorption bands and newly available digital computers to replace the older graphical methods. In a seminal article in 1956, Plass calculated a 3.6 °C surface temperature increase for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 and thus adding CO2 to the atmosphere will have a significant effect on the radiation balance.  For more information on Plass see here and here.

Roger Randall Dougan Revelle
(1909-1991) an American oceanographer best known for his pioneering studies of carbon dioxide balance in the oceans and its effect on climate change. In a seminal paper published in 1957, Revelle and Hans Suess argued that humankind was performing "a great geophysical experiment" and called on the scientific community to monitor changes in the carbon dioxide content of waters and the atmosphere as well as production rates of plants and animals. Revelle finds that CO2 produced by humans will not be readily absorbed by the oceans.  For more information on Revelle see here, here, here, and here.

Charles D. Keeling (1928-2005), an American pioneer in the monitoring of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. Widely recognized as the "Keeling curve", the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration measurements, taken since 1958 at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, constitute the longest, continuous record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration recordings available in the world. These measurements are recognized as a reliable indicator of the regional trend in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the middle layers of the troposphere. In 1960 Keeling accurately measures CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere and detects an annual rise. The level is 315 ppm. Mean global temperature (five-year average) is 13.9°C.  For more information on Keeling see here, here, and here.

Hans E. Suess (1909-1993), an American chemist who developed an improved method of carbon-14 dating, which he used to document the profound effect that the combustion of fossil fuels had had on the Earth’s stocks and flows of carbon (1955). Fossil fuels are so ancient that they contain no carbon-14, so when combusted, the carbon dioxide (CO2) they release dilutes the carbon-14 content of both atmosphere and plants. This dilution is now known as the "Suess effect", and it unequivocally proved that the increase in atmospheric CO2 was due to the combustion of fossil fuels.

Tom M. L. Wigley (1940-) is an Australian mathematical physicist and climatologist who made many important contributions to climate and carbon-cycle modeling and to climate data analysis. He made important contributions to a diverse collection of topics in climatology including data analysis; climate impacts on agriculture and water resources; paleoclimatology; and modeling of climate, sea level, and the carbon cycle.

Cesare Marchetti (1927-), an Italian physicist and systems analyst noted for his pathbreaking work in modeling long run patterns of energy substitution, carbon dioxide sequestration, and the production of energy from hydrogen. As a senior scientist at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Marchetti developed the first mathematical models of the long run pattern of energy substitution in industrial economies,  For more information about Marchetti see here and here.

Stephen H. Schneider (1945-), an American climatologist who pioneered three-dimensional climate modeling. Schneider is known for his ability to integrate and interpret the results of global climate research through public lectures, seminars, classroom teaching, environmental assessment committees, media appearances, and Congressional testimony. He is the founding editor of Climatic Change, among the first journals to foster interdisciplinary inquiry into the totality of the problem of
 climatic variability and change, as well as its descriptions, causes, implications and interactions.  For more on Schneider see here, here, and here.

Climate Scientists prior to the 1970's

The following is a list of scientists who researched the earth's climate prior to 1970.  Each of these men provided significant steps in the scientific knowledge of the admosphere and its role in the greenhouse effect.  The concepts of the greenhouse effect has been around for a long time -- as far back as the mid 1700's.  

Horace Bénédict de Saussure (1740-1799) -- in 1767 Saussure, a Swiss physicist, geologist, and early Alpine explorer, invented the heliothermometer, an instrument for measuring solar radiation. This instrument was an early forerunner to modern solar radiation measurement devices. De Saussure also built numerous “hot boxes”, miniature greenhouses made of wood with glass covers that trapped the sun’s energy. Studies based on the hot box led de Saussure to hypothesize that it was cooler in the mountains than in lower-lying regions because, although the same amount of sunlight strikes the mountains as the flat lands, because the air in the mountains is more transparent it cannot trap as much solar heat.  For more information on Saussure see here.

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)  Fourier is also credited with the discovery in 1824 that gases in the atmosphere might increase the surface temperature of the Earth.[4] This was the effect that would later be called the greenhouse effect. He described the phenomenon in 1824[5] and then again in a very similar paper in 1827[6] whereby an atmosphere serves to warm a planet.[7] This established the concept of planetary energy balance — that planets obtain energy from a number of sources that cause temperature increase. Planets also lose energy by infrared radiation (that Fourier called "chaleur obscure" or "dark heat") with the rate increasing with temperature. A balance is reached between heat gain and heat loss; the atmosphere shifts the balance toward the higher temperatures by slowing the heat loss. Although Fourier understood that the rate of infrared radiation increased with temperature, the Stefan–Boltzmann law which gives the exact form of this dependency (a fourth-power law) was discovered fifty years later..  For more information on Fourier see here, here, and here.

Claude Pouillet (1791 - 1868) -- 1838 Pouillet, a french physicist, attributes the natural greenhouse effect to water vapour and carbon dioxide. He concludes that any variation in the quantity of water vapour or of carbon dioxide in the atmopshere should result in a climate change.  For more information on Pouillet see here, and here.

John Tyndall (1820–1893) -- in 1859 Tyndall, an Irish physicist, discovered that some gases block infrared radiation. Tyndall explained the heat in the Earth's atmosphere in terms of the capacities of the various gases in the air to absorb radiant heat, a.k.a. infrared radiation. His measuring device, which used thermopile technology, is an early landmark in the history of absorption spectroscopy of gases. He was the first to correctly measure the relative infrared absorptive powers of the gases nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, etc. He concluded that water vapour is the strongest absorber of radiant heat in the atmosphere and is the principal gas controlling air temperature. Absorption by the other gases is not negligible but relatively small. Prior to Tyndall it was widely surmised that the Earth's atmosphere has a Greenhouse Effect, but he was the first to prove it. The proof was that water vapor strongly absorbed infrared radiation  For more information on Tyndall see here, here, and here.

Joseph Stefan
(1835 - 1893) is best known for originating a physical power law in 1879 stating that the total radiation from a black body j* is proportional to the fourth power of its thermodynamic temperature T.  Stefan deduced the law from experimental measurements made by the Irish physicist John Tyndall. In 1884 the law was derived theoretically in the framework of thermodynamics by Stefan's student Ludwig Boltzmann and hence is known as the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Boltzmann treated a heat engine with light as a working matter. This law is the only physical law of nature named after a Slovene physicist.

James Croll (1821-1890) was a Scottish physical scientist who was the leading proponent of an astronomical theory of climate change in the nineteenth century.  In 1864, Croll published an article in the Philosophical Magazine “On the Physical Cause of the Change of Climate During Geological Epochs.” In this paper Croll introduced changes in the earth's orbital elements as likely periodic and extraterrestrial mechanisms for initiating multiple glacial epochs.  For more on Croll see here.

Svante August Arrhenius (1859–1927) -- in 1896 publishes first calculation of global warming from human emissions of CO2.  He comes by calculation to the conclusion that a doubling of CO2 in the air will lead to a global increase of 4°C of the ground temperature, and predicts as a consequence that the industrial age will generate a global warming.  For more information on Arrhenius see here, here, and here.

Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928) -- in 1897 Chamberlin produces a model for global carbon exchange including feedbacks.  Chamberlin developed a theory of climate change and was one of the first to emphasize carbon dioxide as a major regulator of Earth's temperature, thus anticipating modern global warming. Chamberlin was the first to demonstrate that the only way to understand climate was to understand almost everything about the planet together — not just the air but the oceans, the volcanoes bringing gases from the deep interior, the chemistry of weathered minerals, and more.  For more information on Chamberlin see here, here, and here.

Milutin Milankovitch (1879-1958) -- in the 1930s Milutin Milankovitch, a Serbian astrophysicist and geophysicist best known for his theory of ice ages, relating variations of the Earth's orbit and long-term climate change, now known as Milankovitch cycles. These ideas were derived from improved methods of calculating variations in Earth's eccentricity, precession, and tilt through time and determining their combined effects on long term climate change  Note:  James Croll did earlier work, 1864, on orbital changes as the cause of ice ages.  For more information on Milankovitch see here, here, here, and here.

Guy Stewart Callendar (1897-1964) a British steam engineer, was the first scientist to study climate change in a rigorous and systematic way and the first to empirically connect rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere with the increase in the Earth’s temperature. In 1938, Callendar published a paper titled The Artificial Production of Carbon Dioxide and its Influence on Temperature, the first of many articles on the subject. He noted a significant upward trend in temperatures for the first four decades of the 20th century and a continuously rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 since post-industrial times. He linked these trends to the combustion of fossil fuels, describing it as an enhanced "greenhouse effect" where infrared radiation is both absorbed and emitted by the extra CO2, causing warming at the Earth's surface.  For more on Callendar see here, here, and here.

Lewis Fry Richardson, FRS  (11 October 1881 - 30 September 1953) was an English mathematician, physicist, meteorologist, psychologist and pacifist who pioneered modern mathematical techniques of weather forecasting, and the application of similar techniques to studying the causes of wars and how to prevent them. He is also noted for his pioneering work on fractals and a method for solving a system of linear equations known as modified Richardson iteration.

John von Neumann (English pronunciation: /vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/) (December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician and polymath who made major contributions to a vast number of fields,[1] including set theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics, ergodic theory, continuous geometry, fluid dynamics, economics and game theory, computer science, numerical analysis, hydrodynamics, and statistics, as well as many other mathematical fields. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians in modern history.[2] The mathematician Jean Dieudonné called von Neumann "the last of the great mathematicians"  Von Veumann used his knowledge to pioneer work on weather and climate models using computers.

Norman Phillips:  In 1956, Norman Phillips developed a mathematical model which could realistically depict monthly and seasonal patterns in the troposphere, which became the first successful climate model.[2][3] Following Phillips's work, several groups began working to create general circulation models.[4] The first general circulation climate model that combined both oceanic and atmospheric processes was developed in the late 1960s at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.[5] By the early 1980s, the United States' National Center for Atmospheric Research had developed the Community Atmosphere Model; this model has been continuously refined into the 2000s.[6] In 1996, efforts began to initialize and model soil and vegetation types, which led to more realistic forecasts.[7] Coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models such as the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research's HadCM3 model are currently being used as inputs for climate change studies.[4] The importance of gravity waves was neglected within these models until the mid 1980s. Now, gravity waves are required within global climate models in order to properly simulate regional and global scale circulations, though their broad spectrum makes their incorporation complicated.[8]

The Myth of the 1970s Global Cooling Scientific Consensus

1965    Revelle, et al (1965)
1967    Manabe and Weatherald (1967): 306
1969    Sellers (1969): 191
1970    Benton (1970): 0
1970    Report of the Study of Critical Environmental Problems (1970): 130
1971    Mitchell (1971): 81
1972    Budyko (1972):36
1972    Machta (1972): 31
1972    Mitchell (1972): 36
1972    Sawyer (1972):  8
1974    Federal Council for Science and Technology Interdepartmental Committe for Atmospheric Sciences (1974): 1
1974    Kellogg and Schneider (1974): 30
1974    Sellers (1974): 33
1975    Broecker (1975): 54
1975    Manabe and Wetherald (1975): 211
1975    Ramanathan (1975): 63
1975    Rock (1975): 13
1975    Schneider and Mass (1975): 82
1975    Schneider (1975):  94
1975    Thompson (1975): 49
1976    Flohn (1977): 7;
1976    Idso and Brazel (1977): 1;
1976    Lee and Snell (1977): 8;
1976    National Academy of Sciences (1977): 1;
1976    Nordhaus (1977): 13;
1976    Panel on Energy and Climate (1977): 78;
1976    Woronko (1977): 1
1977    Flohn (1977): 7;
1977    Idso and Brazel (1977): 1;
1977    Lee and Snell (1977): 8;
1977    National Academy of Sciences (1977): 1;
1977    Nordhaus (1977): 13;
1977    Panel on Energy and Climate (1977): 78;
1977    Woronko (1977): 1
1978    Budyko et al. (1978): 0;
1978    Cooper (1978): 0;
1978    Gilchrist (1978): 5;
1978    Idso and Brazel (1978): 2;
1978    Mason (1978b): 0;
1978    Mercer: (1978): 48;
1978    Ohring and Adler (1978): 25;
1978    Stuiver (1978): 101
1979    Berger (1979): 6;
1979    Charney et al. (1979): 50;
1979    Houghton (1979): 0;
1979    Hoyt (1979): 13;
1979    Rotty (1979): 1