Cooling Predictions from the 1970's
For those who would deny that the climate is warming one common
question they will ask is "Why did they predict climate cooling in the
'70s?". When asked who is the "they" they are refering to the
usual response is "All climate scientists." It turns out that is
just not true. 1970s ice age predictions were predominantly media
based. The majority of peer reviewed research at the time predicted
warming due to increasing CO2. For a more detailed look at the
state of climate science in the 1970's see [here] for a basic overview and [here] for a more indepth overview. The following two charts and the references come from those overviews provided by Skeptical Science.
Climate Scientists of the 1970's
The following is a list of
notable climate scientists who were active during the 1970's.
They were at various stages of their careers but each published
during the '70s. In each case their work indicated a warming
trend for the earth's climate. This list is by no means complete.
All of these men worked in collaboration with others. If
you follow the links you will find references to many more climate
scientists from the '70s.
Rickard Johannes Bolin (Swedish
bʊliːn]; 15 March 1925 – 30 December
was a Swedish meteorologist
who served as the first chairman of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC), from 1988 to 1997. He was professor of meteorology at Stockholm
University from 1961 until his retirement in 1990.
Bolin was Professor of Meteorology at Stockholm University
1961-1990, and involved in international climate research cooperation
from the 1960s. Bolin was involved in organising use of the new satellite
tools for climate research, which led to the formation of the ICSU
Committee on Atmospheric Sciences (CAS) in 1964, with Bolin becoming
its first Chairman. CAS started the Global Atmospheric Research
Programme (GARP) in 1967, which Bolin also chaired; GARP became the World Climate
Research Programme in 1980.
In the mid-1980s, a 500-page report (Brundtland
Report) which Bolin was involved with contributed to the
setting up of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Under his chairmanship (from 1988 to 1997), the IPCC produced its First Assessment Report
(1990) and Second Assessment
Report (1995), contributing to the IPCC sharing the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with
former US Vice President Al
Bolin was asked to accept the Prize on behalf of the IPCC, but was too
ill to attend.
Bolin is credited with bringing together a diverse range of views among
the panel's 3,500 scientists into something resembling a consensus.
The first report led to the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the
second to the Kyoto Protocol.
Gregory Charney (January 1, 1917
– June 16, 1981) was an American meteorologist
who played an important role in developing weather prediction. He
developed a set of equations (The Quasi-Geostrophic Vorticity Equation)
for calculating the large-scale motions of planetary-scale waves. He gave
the first convincing physical explanation for the development of
mid-latitude cyclones known as the Baroclinic
Instability theory. He is considered the father of modern
Charney studied physics at UCLA where he completed his
masters in 1940 and Ph.D. in 1946.
In the 1950s, he was involved in early research on numerical weather
prediction together with John von Neumann at the Institute for Advanced
Study (IAS) at Princeton University.
He and von Neumann brought over from England a recent Ph.D. in
meteorological calculations, Bruce Gilchrist, to work
on this task using the institute's computer, the IAS machine.
Their collective work paved the way for the founding of the Geophysical
Fluid Dynamics Laborator
Smagorinsky (29 January 1924 - 21
September 2005) was an American meteorologist and the first director of
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geophysical
Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. Following his
apprenticeship and work with von Neumann and Charney, in 1953, at age
29, Smagorinsky accepted a position at the U.S. Weather Bureau and was
among the pioneers of the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. In
1955, at von Neumann's instigation, the U.S. Weather Bureau created a
General Circulation Research Section under Smagorinsky's direction.
Smagorinsky felt that his charge was to continue with the final step of
the von Neumann/Charney computer modeling program: a three-dimensional,
global, primitive-equation general circulation model of the atmosphere.
The General Circulation Research Section was initially located in
Suitland, Maryland, near the Weather Bureau's JNWP unit. The section
moved to Washington, D.C. and was renamed the General Circulation
Research Laboratory in 1959 and then renamed again as the Geophysical
Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in 1963. The lab moved to its
current home at Princeton University
in 1968. Smagorinsky continued to direct the lab until his retirement
in January, 1983.
"Suki" Manabe (真
鍋 淑郎 Manabe Shukurō,
born on September 21, 1931 in Ehime) is a Japanese
who pioneered the use of computers
to simulate global climate change and natural
Working at NOAA's Geophysical
Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, first in Washington,
DC and later in Princeton, New Jersey,
Manabe worked with director Joseph Smagorinsky to
develop three dimensional models
of the atmosphere. In 1967 he and
Richard Wetherald demonstrated that increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide
concentrations would increase the altitude at which the earth radiated
heat to space. In 1969 Manabe and Kirk Bryan published the first
simulations of the climate of a planet with coupled ocean and
atmosphere models, establishing the role of oceanic heat transport in
determining global climate. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Manabe's
research group published seminal papers using these models to explore
the sensitivity of Earth's climate
to changing greenhouse gas
concentrations. These papers formed a major part of the first global
assessments of climate change published by the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change.
Other important work done by Manabe included the suggestion
that climate might have more than one stable state (Manabe and
Stouffer, 1988) and the demonstration that switches between such states
could be induced in a relatively realistic model by melting ice
caps (Manabe et al., 1995).
Yale Mintz: In
the late 1950s, Yale Mintz of the UCLA Dept.
of Meteorology also began to design numerical general circulation
Like Smagorinsky, Mintz recruited a Japanese meteorologist, Akio
Arakawa, to help him build general circulation models. Arakawa, known
for his mathematical wizardry, was particularly interested in
building robust schemes for the parameterization of cumulus
convection. Mintz and Arakawa constructed a series of increasingly
sophisticated AGCMs beginning in 1961. IBM's Large Scale Scientific
Computation Department in San Jose, California, provided important
computational assistance and wrote the manual describing the
Of all the general circulation modeling groups in the world, the UCLA
laboratory probably had the greatest influence on other modeling
groups, especially in the 1960s and 1970s
Arakawa's Computation Device Climate science
required the invention and mastery of difficult techniques. These
pitfalls, which could lead to controversy. An example of the ingenious
technical work and
hard-fought debates underlying the main story is Akio Arakawa's
invention of a mathematical
method that solved a vexing instability in big computer models.
Norton Lorenz (May 23, 1917 –
April 16, 2008)
was an American mathematician and meteorologist, and a pioneer
of chaos theory.
He discovered the strange attractor notion and coined
the term butterfly effect.
During the 1950s, Lorenz became skeptical of the
appropriateness of the linear statistical models in
meteorology, as most atmospheric
phenomena involved in weather forecasting are non-linear.
His work on the topic culminated in the publication of his 1963 paper Deterministic
Nonperiodic Flow in Journal of the
Atmospheric Sciences, and with it, the foundation of chaos theory.
His description of the butterfly effect followed
He was awarded the Kyoto Prize for basic
sciences, in the field of earth and planetary sciences, in 1991,
the Buys Ballot Award in
2004, and the Tomassoni Award in 2008.[citation
needed] In his later
years, he lived in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
He was an avid outdoorsman, who enjoyed hiking, climbing, and
cross-country skiing. He kept up with these pursuits until very late in
his life, and managed to continue most of his regular activities until
only a few weeks before his death. According to his daughter, Cheryl
Lorenz, Lorenz had "finished a paper a week ago with a colleague."
Lorenz built a mathematical model of
the way air moves around in the atmosphere.
As Lorenz studied weather patterns he began to
realize that they did not always change as predicted. Minute variations
in the initial values of variables in his twelve-variable computer
model (c. 1960) would result in grossly divergent weather
This sensitive dependence on initial conditions came to be known as the
butterfly effect (it also
meant that weather predictions from more than about a week out are
generally fairly inaccurate).
Lorenz went on to explore the underlying mathematics and published
his conclusions in a seminal work titled Deterministic
Nonperiodic Flow, in which he described a relatively simple
system of equations that resulted in a very complicated dynamical
object now known as the Lorenz attractor.
expanded the domain of numerical weather prediction schemes in order to
derive global climate models. The low-resolution thermodynamic
model first described by Adem in 1965 is an interesting type of climate
model, since it lies part-way towards the apex of the climate modelling
pyramid although the methodology is simpeler in nature than that of an
atmospheric GCM. Similar in basic composition to an EBM, Adem's
model includes, ina highly parameterized way, many dynamic, radiative
and surfvace features and feedback effects, giving it a higher position
on the modelling pyramid.
E. Hansen (born March 29, 1941) heads
Institute for Space Studies in New York City, a part of the
Goddard Space Flight
Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
He has held this position since 1981. He is also an adjunct
professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental
Sciences at Columbia University.
After graduate school, Hansen continued his work with radiative
transfer models, attempting to understand the Venusian atmosphere.
Later he applied and refined these models to understand the Earth's
atmosphere, in particular, the effects that aerosols and
trace gases have on Earth's climate. Hansen's development and use of global climate models
has contributed to the further understanding of the Earth's climate.
Hansen is best known for his research in the field of climatology, his testimony on climate change to
congressional committees in 1988 that helped raise broad awareness of global warming, and his
advocacy of action to limit the impacts of climate change.
Smith Broecker (born November 29, 1931
is the Newberry Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental
Sciences at Columbia University
and a scientist at Columbia's Lamont-Doherty
Earth Observatory. He developed the idea of a global "conveyor belt"
linking the circulation of the global ocean and made major
contributions to the science of the carbon cycle and the use of
chemical tracers and isotope dating in oceanography. In 1975,
Broecker inadvertently coined the phrase global warming when he
published a paper titled: “Climate Change: Are we on the
Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?”
He has recently co-written an account of climate science with the
science journalist, Robert Kunzig. This includes a discussion of the
work of Broecker's Columbia colleague Klaus Lackner in capturing
CO2 from the atmosphere - which Broecker believes must play a vital
role in reducing emissions and countering global warming. Broecker has
been described in the New York Times as a geoengineering pioneer.
Bryan (born 1929) is an American oceanographer
who is considered to be the founder of numerical ocean modeling.
Starting in the 1960s at the Geophysical
Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, then located in Washington, D.C., Bryan
worked with a series of colleagues to develop numerical schemes for
solving the equations of motion
describing flow on a sphere. His work on these schemes led to the
so-called "Bryan-Cox code" with which many early simulations were made,
and which led to the Modular Ocean Model
currently used by many numerical oceanographers and climate scientists.
In addition to his important contributions in developing
numerical codes, Bryan was also involved in early efforts to apply them
to understanding the global climate
system. In 1967, he published, with Michael Cox, the first model of the
of the ocean, forced by both winds and thermodynamic forcing.
In 1969, a paper with Syukoro
Manabe was the first to present integrations of a fully
coupled atmosphere-ocean model, demonstrating the importance of ocean heat transport to the
climate. This work was recently named one of the top ten breakthroughs
in the history of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric
Administration. Bryan's 1971 paper with the noted dynamicist Adrian Gill demonstrated the
important role played by bottom topography in setting the structure of
the global ocean circulation, and played a major role in suggesting
links between changes in continental topography and climate, continuing
a long-term interest in the role of oceanic heat transport in
determining global climate.
Warren M. Washington
is an atmospheric scientist whose research focuses on the development
of computer models that describe and predict the Earth's climate. He is
the director of the Climate and Global Dynamics Division of the
National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), in Boulder, Colorado.
He has advised the U.S. Congress and several U.S. presidents on
climate-system modeling, serving on the President's National Advisory
Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere from 1978 to 1984.
Emiliani (1922-1995), an Italian
paleoceanographer who used Urey's
isotope to discover that the temperature of the ocean
and the ice masses on Earth changed through time in cycles and showed
that these cycles could be recognized and correlated throughout the Atlantic.
He is widely regarded as the father of paleoceanography. For
more on Emiliani see here.
Plass (1921-2004) was a Canadian-born physicist
who made important early contributions to the carbon
of climate change. He graduated from Harvard University in 1941,
received a Ph.D in physics from Princeton University in 1947, and
eventually became a professor at Texas A&M University. Between
and 1959, Plass developed an early computer model of infrared radiative
transfer and published a number of articles on carbon dioxide and
climate. Plass used new detailed measurements of the infrared
absorption bands and newly available digital computers to replace the
older graphical methods. In a seminal article in 1956, Plass calculated
a 3.6 °C surface temperature increase for a doubling of
CO2 and thus adding CO2
to the atmosphere will have a significant effect on the radiation
balance. For more information on Plass see here
Randall Dougan Revelle
(1909-1991) an American oceanographer best known for his
pioneering studies of carbon
dioxide balance in the oceans
and its effect on climate change. In a seminal paper published in 1957,
Revelle and Hans
argued that humankind was performing "a great geophysical experiment"
and called on the scientific community to monitor changes in the carbon
dioxide content of waters
and the atmosphere
as well as production rates of plants and
animals. Revelle finds
produced by humans will not be readily absorbed by
For more information on Revelle see here,
Keeling (1928-2005), an American pioneer in the
monitoring of carbon
dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.
Widely recognized as the "Keeling curve", the atmospheric carbon
dioxide concentration measurements, taken since 1958 at the Mauna Loa
Observatory in Hawaii, constitute the longest, continuous record of
atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration recordings available in the
world. These measurements are recognized as a reliable indicator of the
regional trend in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in
the middle layers of the troposphere. In 1960
Keeling accurately measures CO2 in the Earth's
detects an annual rise. The level is 315 ppm. Mean global temperature
(five-year average) is 13.9°C. For more information
on Keeling see here,
E. Suess (1909-1993), an American chemist who
improved method of carbon-14 dating, which he used to document the
profound effect that the combustion
of fossil fuels had had on the Earth’s stocks and flows of carbon
(1955). Fossil fuels are so ancient that they contain no carbon-14, so
when combusted, the carbon
dioxide (CO2) they release dilutes the
carbon-14 content of both atmosphere
and plants. This dilution is now known as the "Suess effect", and it
unequivocally proved that the increase in atmospheric CO2
was due to the combustion of fossil fuels.
M. L. Wigley (1940-) is an Australian
mathematical physicist and
climatologist who made many important contributions to climate and carbon-cycle
modeling and to climate data analysis. He made important contributions
to a diverse collection of topics in climatology including data
analysis; climate impacts on agriculture
resources; paleoclimatology; and modeling of climate, sea
level, and the carbon cycle.
Marchetti (1927-), an Italian physicist and
noted for his pathbreaking work in modeling long run patterns of energy
substitution, carbon dioxide sequestration, and the production of
energy from hydrogen.
As a senior scientist at the International Institute for Applied
Systems Analysis (IIASA), Marchetti developed the first mathematical
models of the long run pattern of energy substitution in industrial
economies, For more information about Marchetti see here and
H. Schneider (1945-), an American climatologist
three-dimensional climate modeling. Schneider is known for his ability
to integrate and interpret the results of global climate research
through public lectures, seminars, classroom teaching, environmental
assessment committees, media appearances, and Congressional testimony.
He is the founding editor of Climatic Change,
among the first
journals to foster interdisciplinary inquiry into the totality of the
climatic variability and change, as well as its
descriptions, causes, implications and interactions. For more
on Schneider see here,
Climate Scientists prior to the 1970's
The following is a list of scientists who researched the earth's
climate prior to 1970. Each of these men provided significant
steps in the scientific knowledge of the admosphere and its role in the
greenhouse effect. The concepts of the greenhouse effect has been
around for a long time -- as far back as the mid 1700's.
Horace Bénédict de Saussure (1740-1799) -- in 1767 Saussure, a Swiss physicist, geologist,
and early Alpine explorer, invented the heliothermometer, an
instrument for measuring solar radiation.
This instrument was an early forerunner to modern solar radiation
measurement devices. De Saussure also built numerous “hot boxes”,
miniature greenhouses made of wood with glass covers that trapped the
sun’s energy. Studies based on the hot box led de Saussure to
hypothesize that it was cooler in the mountains than in lower-lying
regions because, although the same amount of sunlight strikes the
mountains as the flat lands, because the air in the mountains is more
transparent it cannot trap as much solar heat. For more information on Saussure see here.
Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) Fourier is also credited with the discovery in 1824 that gases in the
atmosphere might increase the surface temperature of the Earth. This was the effect that would later be called the greenhouse effect. He described the phenomenon in 1824 and then again in a very similar paper in 1827 whereby an atmosphere serves to warm a planet.
This established the concept of planetary energy balance — that planets
obtain energy from a number of sources that cause temperature increase.
Planets also lose energy by infrared radiation (that Fourier called "chaleur obscure"
or "dark heat") with the rate increasing with temperature. A balance is
reached between heat gain and heat loss; the atmosphere shifts the
balance toward the higher temperatures by slowing the heat loss.
Although Fourier understood that the rate of infrared radiation
increased with temperature, the Stefan–Boltzmann law
which gives the exact form of this dependency (a fourth-power law) was
discovered fifty years later.. For more information on Fourier
see here, here, and here.
Claude Pouillet (1791 - 1868) -- 1838 Pouillet, a french physicist, attributes
the natural greenhouse effect to water
vapour and carbon dioxide. He concludes that any variation
in the quantity of water vapour or of carbon dioxide in the atmopshere
should result in a climate change. For more information on Pouillet see here, and here.
-- in 1859 Tyndall, an Irish physicist, discovered that some gases
radiation. Tyndall explained the heat in the Earth's atmosphere in
terms of the capacities of the various gases in the air to absorb radiant heat, a.k.a. infrared radiation. His measuring device, which used thermopile technology, is an early landmark in the history of absorption spectroscopy of gases.
He was the first to correctly measure the relative infrared absorptive
powers of the gases nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon dioxide,
ozone, methane, etc. He concluded that water vapour
is the strongest absorber of radiant heat in the atmosphere and is the
principal gas controlling air temperature. Absorption by the other gases
is not negligible but relatively small. Prior to Tyndall it was widely
surmised that the Earth's atmosphere has a Greenhouse Effect,
but he was the first to prove it. The proof was that water vapor
strongly absorbed infrared radiation For more information on
Tyndall see here, here, and here.
Joseph Stefan (1835 - 1893) is best known for originating a physical power law in 1879 stating that the total radiation from a black body j* is proportional to the fourth power of its thermodynamic temperature T. Stefan deduced the law from experimental measurements made by the Irish physicist John Tyndall. In 1884 the law was derived theoretically in the framework of thermodynamics by Stefan's student Ludwig Boltzmann and hence is known as the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Boltzmann treated a heat engine with light as a working matter. This law is the only physical law of nature named after a Slovene physicist.
James Croll (1821-1890) was a Scottish physical scientist who was the
leading proponent of an astronomical theory of climate change in the
nineteenth century. In 1864, Croll published an article in the Philosophical Magazine “On the Physical Cause of the Change of Climate During Geological Epochs.”
In this paper Croll introduced changes in the earth's orbital elements
as likely periodic and extraterrestrial mechanisms for initiating
multiple glacial epochs. For more on Croll see here.
(1859–1927) -- in 1896 publishes first
calculation of global
warming from human emissions of
CO2. He comes by calculation to the conclusion that a doubling of CO2 in the air will lead to a global increase
of 4°C of the ground temperature, and predicts as a consequence
that the industrial age will generate a global warming. For more information on Arrhenius see here, here, and here.
(1843-1928) -- in 1897 Chamberlin produces a model for global carbon
including feedbacks. Chamberlin developed a theory of climate change and was one of the
first to emphasize carbon dioxide as a major regulator of Earth's
temperature, thus anticipating modern global warming.
Chamberlin was the first to demonstrate that the only way to understand
climate was to understand almost everything about the planet together —
not just the air but the oceans, the volcanoes bringing gases from the deep interior, the chemistry of weathered minerals, and more. For more information on Chamberlin see here, here, and here.
Milankovitch (1879-1958) -- in
the 1930s Milutin Milankovitch, a Serbian astrophysicist and
geophysicist best known for his theory of ice ages, relating variations
of the Earth's orbit and long-term climate change, now known as Milankovitch cycles.
These ideas were derived from improved methods of calculating
variations in Earth's eccentricity, precession, and tilt through time
and determining their combined effects on long term climate change Note: James Croll did
earlier work, 1864, on orbital changes as the cause of ice ages. For more information on Milankovitch see here, here, here, and here.
Stewart Callendar (1897-1964) a British steam engineer, was the first scientist to study climate
change in a rigorous and systematic way and the first to empirically
connect rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere with the increase in the Earth’s temperature. In 1938, Callendar published a paper titled The Artificial Production of Carbon Dioxide and its Influence on Temperature,
the first of many articles on the subject. He noted a significant
upward trend in temperatures for the first four decades of the 20th
century and a continuously rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 since post-industrial times. He linked these trends to the combustion of fossil fuels, describing it as an enhanced "greenhouse effect" where infrared radiation is both absorbed and emitted by the extra CO2, causing warming at the Earth's surface. For more on Callendar see here, here, and here.
Fry Richardson, FRS (11
October 1881 - 30 September 1953) was an English mathematician, physicist,
psychologist and pacifist who pioneered modern
mathematical techniques of weather forecasting, and the application of
similar techniques to studying the causes of wars and how to prevent
them. He is also noted for his pioneering work on fractals
and a method for solving a system of linear equations
known as modified Richardson
von Neumann (English
pronunciation: /vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/)
(December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician and polymath
who made major contributions to a vast number of fields,
including set theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics, ergodic theory, continuous geometry, fluid dynamics, economics
and game theory, computer science, numerical analysis, hydrodynamics,
and statistics, as well as many
other mathematical fields. He is generally regarded as one of the
greatest mathematicians in modern history.
The mathematician Jean Dieudonné
called von Neumann "the last of the great mathematicians" Von
Veumann used his knowledge to pioneer work on weather and climate
models using computers.
In 1956, Norman Phillips developed a mathematical model which
could realistically depict monthly and seasonal patterns in the
troposphere, which became the first successful climate model.
Following Phillips's work, several groups began working to create general
The first general circulation climate model that combined both oceanic
and atmospheric processes was developed in the late 1960s at the NOAA Geophysical
Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.
By the early 1980s, the United States' National
Center for Atmospheric Research had developed the Community
Atmosphere Model; this model has been continuously refined into the
In 1996, efforts began to initialize and model soil and vegetation
types, which led to more realistic forecasts.
Coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models such as the Hadley
Centre for Climate Prediction and Research's HadCM3
model are currently being used as inputs for climate change studies.
The importance of gravity waves was neglected
within these models until the mid 1980s. Now, gravity waves are
required within global climate models in order to properly simulate
regional and global scale circulations, though their broad spectrum
makes their incorporation complicated.
The Myth of the 1970s Global Cooling Scientific Consensus
1965 Revelle, et al (1965)
1967 Manabe and Weatherald (1967): 306
1969 Sellers (1969): 191
1970 Benton (1970): 0
1970 Report of the Study of Critical Environmental Problems (1970): 130
1971 Mitchell (1971): 81
1972 Budyko (1972):36
1972 Machta (1972): 31
1972 Mitchell (1972): 36
1972 Sawyer (1972): 8
1974 Federal Council for Science and Technology Interdepartmental Committe for Atmospheric Sciences (1974): 1
1974 Kellogg and Schneider (1974): 30
1974 Sellers (1974): 33
1975 Broecker (1975): 54
1975 Manabe and Wetherald (1975): 211
1975 Ramanathan (1975): 63
1975 Rock (1975): 13
1975 Schneider and Mass (1975): 82
1975 Schneider (1975): 94
1975 Thompson (1975): 49
1976 Flohn (1977): 7;
1976 Idso and Brazel (1977): 1;
1976 Lee and Snell (1977): 8;
1976 National Academy of Sciences (1977): 1;
1976 Nordhaus (1977): 13;
1976 Panel on Energy and Climate (1977): 78;
1976 Woronko (1977): 1
1977 Flohn (1977): 7;
1977 Idso and Brazel (1977): 1;
1977 Lee and Snell (1977): 8;
1977 National Academy of Sciences (1977): 1;
1977 Nordhaus (1977): 13;
1977 Panel on Energy and Climate (1977): 78;
1977 Woronko (1977): 1
1978 Budyko et al. (1978): 0;
1978 Cooper (1978): 0;
1978 Gilchrist (1978): 5;
1978 Idso and Brazel (1978): 2;
1978 Mason (1978b): 0;
1978 Mercer: (1978): 48;
1978 Ohring and Adler (1978): 25;
1978 Stuiver (1978): 101
1979 Berger (1979): 6;
1979 Charney et al. (1979): 50;
1979 Houghton (1979): 0;
1979 Hoyt (1979): 13;
1979 Rotty (1979): 1